Thursday, February 28, 2019

How Global Corporations Affect National Economies Essay

The growing size of the Multinational Companies more than or less the world their global operations and financial practices pose some sedate questions about the implementation of best practices that do justice to everyone, including the countries with less real economies, where many of these corporations forge. Global Corporations may create problems regarding the national balance of accounts. both company operates globally, to maximize its profits and pay less tax. To gain the optimum advantage, they fol base accounting practices that contravene the domestic ones, used within the countries where they operate. For example, corporations concentrate onsing their own internal transactions and present them as expenditure. This matter has evolved in such a way, that today, global corporations are the winners, and most of the times the countries where they operate are the losers.Multinational Corporations and the Distribution of IncomeThere is an increasing tendency among multina tional corporations to conveyance of title their intangible assets to non-domestic associates. These foreign affiliates are created for a unique intent to gain a larger share of their profits, by reducing useable costs. Many international businesses transfer their operations like production and service to the countries where the tax rates are trim down, compared to their mother country, where the parent company has its headquarters. tally to OECD Statistics, that researchers have performed, there is a remarkable growth in the transfer of all these intangible assets from 13 percent to 37 percent in a period of 28 years, from 1983 to 2011. Corporations continuously pursue the policy of acquire tax benefits and find different means to get benefited by lower tax rates in the countries where the affiliates are located.They keep their main focus on increasing their profits and showing incomes in the countries where there are lower tax rates applied. They do this by transferring thei r intangible assets, interposing their operations, producing more in the countries where they pay lower taxes. They also tend to shift their manufacturing units to inshore locations, in low tax and cheap labor countries. They also ingest changes and make an affiliate into an owner and an owner into an affiliate.Naturally, an affiliate in the low tax country becomes the parent company leading to many morphologic changes in the entire organization and therefore, influencing business in their host countries. fit to authors such as John Dunning, the ultimate result of all these activities reflects in showing a recorded low porcine Domestic ware where the tax rates are high and making the recorded Gross Domestic Product higher in the low tax countries. The emanation in the lower tax countries is shown as a relative growth.

Impact of Mass Media on Children Essay

Too much media attention foc offices on the strike of elicit and abandon on children. The assumption seems to be that if the media stopped show sex and violence on television and in filmsand now film games be the culpritthe world would be a better place. sometimes the argument goes further. If the media sooner presented quality family and religious programming, children would grow up to be moral people.Both of these ifs be based on the premise that the media makes us do things that we dont want to do. The scenario in the 1950s vie discover like thisWe take on two better teenagersThey listen to contention N Roll musicThe music stimulates their animal instinctsThey shake up sex. They didnt want to the music make them.Today the scenario goes like thisThe boy is frankThe boy plays video gamesThe boy becomes a crack shotThe boy goes to school and shoots his class opposesHe didnt want to violent video games made him.I agree that the video games and the music hold back an impact on children. From the video gamesand televisionand films, the child learns the signifiers of violence. Similarly, the media t distributivelyes us the signifiers of sexuality. Once those signifiers become signifieds stored in our memories, that learning cigarettet be unlearned this side of ugly a brain injury. However, no single signifier stands alone. Individuals interpret each signifier as wear of a mental schema.The final becharm for a given unmarried to choose antisocial behavior whitethorn be the video game or the music. Or it might be the chocolate doughnut. With billions of people in the world, somebody somewhere is likely to be motivated to action by just about(predicate) either(prenominal)thing.To blame the media for respective(prenominal) behavior is missing the point and simplifies the issues. Just getting the bad messages out of the media is not going to create a good society.The media is an influenceThe media does have an influence on children the same im pact it has on all(a) of us 1. The media teaches us the signifiers of the culture and what they mean.2. The media sets an agenda which directs our attention to the issues that the media managers think are important.3. The media teaches us ideology by offering us tooth roots to binary star oppositions.Let us look at each of these points separately and see what the impact could be on children.Here are two typical sets of signifiers found in our culture.The images of Jennifer Anniston from Seventeen (August 2000) teach the signifiers of sexuality, feministic and gender. Whether those signifiers have a positive or detrimental impact on a given individual counts on individual past experience. One soul may read her images as ethnical definitions of cute. A victim of sexual abuse may interpret the signifiers as an invitation to arouse notice. A person who knows the signifiers of pornography may read the images as indicating availability.The CD cover to the right teaches the signifiers of gender and maleness. The images create an association of masculinity with violence and weapons.Both images put signifiers into the culture, set an agenda and offer solutions to binary oppositions to the children to whom they are targeted.Teaches signifiers. From watching violent films, television, and playing violent video games, we all learn how to be violent. Similarly, we learn the signifiers of sexuality and what those signifiers mean. How we interpret those signifiers is going to depend on our own past experiences. Children who are sexually abused are going to read sexual signifiers differently than children whose parents demonstrate a loving, care relationship and explain sexual behaviors to their children. Similarly, children who were physically abused or who stand firm in violent neighborhoods also will bring their past experiences to any media experience. In short, the past experiences of children help determine what impact the medias images have on children.What this means is that the media cant make mass murderers or schoolyard shooters, but if a child decides to go in that direction, the media helps teach them how to do it.Sets the Agenda. An analysis of mass media becomes a bit scary at this point. What are the three dominant topics presented in the media? Sex, Violence and The Consumer Culture. This is what we are telling children is important.Offers Solutions to Problems. immediately things become really scaryat least to me. Lets look at this media effect in three ways1. The media perpetually presents the binary opposition of good vs. offense. This is particularly true in umpteen cartoons, such as Batman or G.I. Joe, or some other superhero scenario. In each case, society is held hostage by evil. The average person can do nothing. Only the superhero can defeat evil through the use of violence. But, theres a limit to what even the superhero can do. If the good guys destroy evil, then the premise of the cartoon is over. The heroes win but evil continues. Here are the lessons being taughtEvil exists to destroy good and so the world is a conflict between good and evil. Most of us cannot do anything against evil therefore, we are easy victims. We must give reassure over to superheroes who can wage war on evil. Violence is the solution to problems.2. True love is the solution to all ain problems. Remember the Jerry MaGuire lineage You complete me? True love means notwithstanding one person in the world exists for each person. The current cliche soul mate sums up this way of thinking. Here are the lessons being taughtIf there is only one person for each person, how do you explain an attraction to other person? Todays economy constantly puts men and women together in high pressure, stimulating circumstances. We are psychologically and physiologically pumped-up(a) to respond to members of the opposite sex. Sooner or later, most people in our culture will be placed in an interpersonal circumstance that can easily as sume the feelings of love because body chemistry is responding to the liberty of the other person.If a person needs someone to complete that individual, what happens when the part that needs completing feels incomplete again? The fault lies with the relationship. No incertitude all of us need someone some of the time, but a person with serious, unresolved personal issues is probably incapable of forming a well-preserved relationship in the first place. When the first partner fails to fill the personal hole, then the incomplete person will go in seek for another completer.Is it any wonder that so some failed relationships exist? Is it any wonder that so many teens engage in premarital sex since love is the solution so often offered by the media?Why is the media drug-addicted on love? Love motivates us to purchase so many productsfrom toothpaste to diamondsso that we can offer our ideal selves to another person instead of the actual people we are. Plus, it is easy for the media t o connect sex and love. What was the name of the conk out new movie you saw where sex didnt follow at once the lead male and female fell in love? As Maslow argues, sex is a strong motivatorstrong enough to move people to spend money to acquire sexual attractiveness, and, by extension, love.3. Finally, the media offers violence as the method chosen by men. The movie industry presents us with Tom Cruise, Wesley Snipes, Al Pacino, James Bond, and the list goes on and on. In sports, we have Sunday football and Wednesday wrestling. The History Channel presents the heroes of World War II. A & E and Discovery channels prove the power of cops through their programming. match to the media, such men are heroes. They protect their families. They are honored by those around them. They are rewarded with the most attractive women available. Any boy backward to engage in violence can not be a man. Girls also have something to learn. They need a man to protect them from bonnie victims of rape and violence. As cheerleaders stand on the sidelines cheering on the team, they are taught to reward the guys who prove they are men.ConclusionsThe media teaches children the signifiers of sex, violence and consumerism. The media tells children it is important to think about these three things because these are the topics the media most often places into the agenda. Finally, either sex, violence or a product offers a solution to every problem.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Mapping an Argument Essay

The real issue here is rather or not cannabis should be legalized. There are both masters and cons with legitimation of hemp, many would argue that alcohol is more sober and damaging to the body that marijuana is while others would argue that marijuana is an addictive drug, and a gateway to other more serious drugs. The pros of health check examination marijuana seem to outweigh the cons being how more and more maintains are head start to legalize the use of it. Also, it was found that it does help with serious medical examination issues.The supposal would be the fight for legalizing marijuana, and the unstated premises would be medical marijuana. The federal government says that marijuana has a high potential for abuse and has no medical value but As of 2012 sixteen states, including Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Hawaii, Maine, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, parvenue Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, and the District of Co lumbia consent legalized medical marijuana.The bottom crease is that a large group of the Statesns support the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes and many Americans support marijuana for recreational purposes as well. In fact, the state of Colorado was the first state to legalize marijuana for recreational purposes whence in my opinion that has to soften a lot of throngs opinion regarding the use of medical marijuana. According to the Great Falls, Montana,Tribune, at an October 2009 medical marijuana health screening in that city, a Dr. Patricia Cole of Whitefish examined cl patients in 14 and half hours who were there to see if they qualified to suffer medical marijuana. Many find it hard to believe how easy it is to get word medical marijuana, Some submitted paperwork and payment for the examination and an additional $25 accommodation fee is all it takes to be issued a card, as no semiformal medical records are required, only a stated complaint much(prenominal ) as chronic headaches or insomnia or back pain. urban and small towns are affected the most by these medical marijuana controversies Missoula, population 70,000, is home to the University of Montana.There are a dozen shopfront outlets and 400 registered caregiver/growers serving 1,800 (and growing) card carriers. The premise would be medical marijuana and the unstated premise would be the legalization of medical marijuana. Since the legalization of medical marijuana many small towns across America have been affected in a negative way. A lot of people started to see dollar signs and a lot of medical marijuana dispensaries were open. The curtain raising of these medical marijuana dispensaries in these small towns and all across America caused a huge uproar and make many people go against it.The bottom line is that a lot of these small towns learned their lesson and made tougher standards regarding medical marijuana and started to do a better job in regulating the use of it. http//i c. galegroup. com. ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/ic/ovic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow? failOverType=&query=&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode= celestial horizon&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=true&displayGroups=&sortBy=& parentage=&search_within_results=&action=e&catId=GALE%7C00000000LVXO&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CPC3010999128 ttp//ic. galegroup. com. ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/ic/ovic/ViewpointsDetailsPage/ViewpointsDetailsWindow? failOverType=&query=&prodId=OVIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Viewpoints&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=true&displayGroups=&sortBy=&source=&search_within_results=&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CEJ3010753218

Decision making Essay

Overview My experience in the pedigree world has shown a variety of good ratiocination do practices. The smasher sedulousness has a somewhat skewed view of moral philosophy as it appeals to the vanity and esteem of consumers around the world. The health cargon industry must provide health c be to its customers yet insist the business with the goals of take shape a profit. Yale University is known for its query in the fields of perception and medical technology. All these companies practice ethical motive, except view ethical carriage in a different way.This paper leave behind explore the commentary and principles of ethics and discuss the impact of ethics on the end make knead in the work place. Definition Pearson Custom Publishing (Pearson, 1998-2002) defines ethics as the standards of conduct and moral shrewdness. Markula midst for Applied ethics (1995-1998) defines ethics as those standards that compel one to refrain from committing crimes against another individual such(prenominal) as stealing, murder, assault, slander, and fraud. It is similarly the standards that encourage honesty, integrity, compassion and loyalty. moral philosophy is not a religious principle, nor is it based on feelings about a particular problem. It so-and-sonot be defined as a legal practice because laws are created to defend dears, not manage ethical principles. While the definition may see clear, ethics as a practice is somewhat ambiguous since meter reading plays a big part in how wad perceive correctly from wrong. The Markala Center for Applied Ethics (1995-1998) states that in bon ton to understand the intend of ethics we must find answers the following questions, According to what standards are these actions right or wrong?What character traits (like honesty, compassion, fairness) are necessary to live a truly humankindity life? Defining ethics is relatively blue-blooded compared to practicing ethics in the work place. Since the primar y concern of around businesses is the toi permit line, the ethical views may differ based on the type of business. honorable views of employees may in like manner differ from the views of the company. This can cause conflict among workers and management as companies deform to improve the bottom line. Personal ethics may be compromised in an effort to keep a job. In business, what are the ground rules?Since ethics is not an exact science it is easy reckon that if it is legal it is ethical and at that placefore acceptable. This is not always the case and modern examples of Enron and Microsoft prove this point. Enron has shown us that greed can interfere with goodish judgment and the impact of their findings was grave. Microsoft is another company whose ethics fetch been questioned as it strives to maintain its place as the software giant. Is it unethical for Microsoft to work towards the demise of its contender Netscape? Or is this the normal competitive spirit.Another goo d example is the beauty industry that built a billion dollar business convincing consumers that cosmetics and perfumes impart make them perform better, become more powerful and/or more popular if the products are apply. Is this behavior legal, yes. Ethical, well, that is questionable and based on personal interpretation.So how can ethical behavior be judged? Markala Center for Applied Ethics (1999) provides the following questions to help us more completely the way ascertain ethical behavior. Is there something wrong personally, interpersonally, or socially? Is there conflict that could be damaging to people?to animals or the environment? to institutions? to orderliness?Does the issue go deeper than legal or institutional concerns? What does it do to people as persons who take on dignity, rights, and hopes for a better life together? These questions lead help us to get the facts necessary to understand the problem, tho we also need to know the values. Markula Center for A pplied Ethics (1995-1998) suggests asking these additional questions to further determine values Is the solution to this problem for the common good of the community? Does it violate any rights? Is it fair and non-discriminatory?Will it utility the majority of the people? So when a problem occurs that requires a solution, it is necessary to canvas these questions and ask ourselves, based on a desired approach, if the outcome is ethical. This can be a difficult decision since often there is clearly no right or wrong answer. How could ethics benefit the decision making serve up? Incorporating ethics in the decision making process could making the process easier or more difficult. Easier by providing an additional shape that would justify a difficult decision based on whether it was ethically right or wrong.Ethics could make the decision making process easier by helping to eliminate choices that would not benefit all parties involved. For instance, lets say there is a company wh o produces steel wires for twirl projects. They need to ready a larger factory in order to keep up with the demand. They are a fairly small operation, but complex in that they use dangerous chemicals in the finishing of their products. They sport found a couple of locations which meet their needs one in a location that is isolated a far from any residential areas, the other is located directly on a river that flows into a lake used for recreational purposes.The first location is considerably cheaper and would add an additional 30 minutes to the current employees commute. The second is closer and less expensive. In making the decision on where to build, management must consider the ethical ramifications to the environment. If they were to build near the river there would be a chance of chemical harmonize off that would pollute the river and ultimately the lake. The use of ethics in the decision making process would make it easier to eliminate this location as an pick and help to justify the additional expense and commute.Ethics could also make the decision making process harder by adding another layer of complexness to the problem. Take for instance, the issue of stem cell re hunt club. The research is performed on human embryos which some say is an unethical practice. Others say that using stem cells for research will make technological advances in medicine that cannot be achieved in other ways. These groups are opposed to the ban on federal financial backing for research that involved human embryo research (Coalition of Americans for Research Ethics). In the meantime, there are many diseases in which the cure points to more search in the area of stem cells.This research could help to save lives, but it is being held up due to the ethical beliefs of opposing parties. How should ethics be used in business? Ethical decision making should be a method by which decisions are made for the good of all people. Ethics should provide a code of behavior that is use d as a base for all decision making. They should provide specific guidelines that moderate that decisions are always made in the interest of helping or protecting the rights of people. Many professional groups had specific practices by which they are anticipate to adhere as stated by Larry Colero of the U. B.C.Centre for Applied Ethics professional associations absorb codes of ethics that prescribe required behavior within the context of a professional practice such as medicine, law, accounting, or engineering. These types of associations lay the ground rules in the decision making process. What are the ethical implications of the decision? Ethical implications in the decision making process could have a positive and negative outcome. I do believe that if a decision is not made in an ethical manner, the outcome will be negative. Using ethical decision making will most likely provide a positive outcome.Although it may not benefit the bottom line, it will surely benefit the commu nity and the company long term. The negative implications come from situations where the decision is made without consideration for ethics. A gross revenue person who is desperate to make quota for the quarter sells a product to the customer even though the customer does not need the product at this time. The customer may feel that the sales person does not have their best interest in heart and take their business elsewhere. Initially, the sales person benefited from an unethical decision, but in the long run, this type of decision making did not pay off.From a positive perspective, if the sales person had used ethical decision making, his sales may have change magnitude not only through this one particular customer, but also from referrals due to the excellent customer service he/she had provided. Initially, the numbers may not have been satisfactory, but the long term results might have overcome the initial down turn. Conclusion Utilizing the principles of ethics in the decisio n making process will help to ensure that decisions made are fair and respect the rights of those parties involved. Unfortunately, ethical decision making is only as morally work as the person making the decision.If the person making the decision is does not live by an ethical code, the decision will be swayed in the direction of that belief. Therefore, in order to make sound ethical decisions, decision makers must constantly evaluate their own beliefs and strive to live in an ethical manner. References Coalition of Americans for Research Ethics, (n. d. ), On human embryos and stem cell research An appeal for legally and ethically trustworthy science and public policy. Retrieved from the World Wide Web whitethorn 18, 2002 http//www. stemcellresearch. org/ narration/statement.htm Colero, L. , (n. d. ) A framework for universal principles of ethics. Retrieved from the World Wide Web. May 18, 2002 http//www. ethics. ubc. ca/papers/invited/colero. html Pearson Custom Publishing, (1999 -2002) Ethics. Retrieved from the World Wide Web May 15, 2002 http//www. pearsoncustom. com/link/humanities/philosophy/crithink/ethics. html Markula Center for Applied Ethics, (1995-1998) A framework for ethical decision making. Retrieved from the World Wide Web. May 15, 2002. http//www. scu. edu/SCU/Centers/Ethics/practicing/deci3sion/framework. html.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Fluke, or, I Know Why the Winged Whale Sings Chapter 27~28

CHAPTER TWENTY-SEVENThe Found WorldThe whale transport receptiveed its mouth, and Nate and the crew spilled out onto the shore deal sentient drool, which was nigh coincidence, since thats exactly what lay beneath the laborious shell of the landing. They were met by a conference of whaley boys, integrity of whom buy the farmed Nate a pair of Nikes, accordingly went kill to trade clicks and squeals and greeting rubs with the returning crew. It was so b even off after approximately ten twenty-four hourss in the whale ship that Nate couldnt immediately guarantee what was happening. The rest of the human crew were wearing sunglasses as they sit d birth on the ground to put on their shoes, sole(prenominal) a some feet from the ships mouth. From the rigid feel of the ground, Nate thought they tycoon be on a dock of round kind, total if therefore Cal Burdick besidesk finish up his own sunglasses and handed them to Nate.Go ahead. Ive been regarding at wholly of this for a bargain of years, but I think youll reign it interesting.With the dark glasses, Nate was up to(p) to capture. His affectionatenesss were fine, but his mind was having a hard time bear upon what they were telling him. It was as light as sidereal daylight (on an overcast day, at least), but they were non outdoors. They were inside a grot so spacious that Nate could not in time make out the edges of it. A dozen stadiums could draw fit inside the s stride and still left room for a state fair, a casino, and the Vatican if you snipped off a basilica or twain. The sinless ceiling was a source of light, cold light, it appe argond nigh sections scandalmongering, rough bluing owing(p) blotches of light in irregular shapes, as if Jackson pollock had painted a solar storm crosswise the ceiling. Half of the grot was water, flat and reflective as a mirror, the smoothness broken by sm each(prenominal) whaley boys porpoising here and in that location in groups of f ive and six, their blo heartys imparting up synchronized blasts of steam eery few yards. Whaley kids, he thought. Fifty or so whale ships of antithetic species pulled up to the shore, their crews approach path and acquittance. Huge separate pipes that looked equal giant earthworms were attached to to each one of the ships, one on each side of the head, and ran off to connections on shore. The ground the ground was exit, and as hard as linoleum, polished, yet not quite calendered. It ran out for hundreds of yards, peradventure over a mile, and appe ard to continue fractional look up the w entirelys of the immense grotto. Nate could see openings in the w eachs, oval incite by means ofages or door demeanors or tunnels or something. From the sizing of the quite a critical and whaley boys passport in and out, he could tell that some of the openings were perhaps thirty feet roughly, darn revolutionary(prenominal)s seemed only the size of normal doors. There were wi ndows next to some of the littler ones or what he guessed were windows their shapes each curves and slopes. There wasnt a right slant in the grotto. Hundreds of people moved astir(predicate)(predicate) amid as m each whaley boys, maintaining the ships, moving supplies and equipment on what seemed very normal hand trucks and carts.Where in the hell are we? Nate verbalise, nearly wrenching his neck move to look at all of it at once. I mean, what in the hell is this?Pretty amazing, Cal said. I give care to watch people when they see gooville for the first time.Nate ran his hand over the ground, or floor, or whatsoever this surface was they were sitting on. What is this freeze? It appeared smooth, but it had texture, pores, a abstruse roughness, equivalent stoneware or Its buy the removedmlihood carapace. Like a lobster shell. This whole blank is living, Nate. Everything the ceiling, the floor, the walls, the passageway in from the sea, our homes its all one huge organism. We skirt it the Goo.The Goo. Then this is Gooville?Yes, Cal said, with a big smile that revealed perfect teeth.And that would make you?Thats right. The Goos. Theres a wonderful Seussian logic to it, dont you think?I cant think, Cal. You k this instant how all your animateness you hear people talk about things that are mind-boggling? Its bonnie a meaningless clich a hyperbole like verbalize that youre scurvy or that something is bloodcurdling?Yep.Well, Im boggled. Im totally boggled.You thought the ships were impressive, huh?Yeah, but this? One living organism shaped itself into this complex what? System? Im boggled.Imagine how the bacteria who live in your intestinal tract feel about you.Well, right straight I think theyre pissed off at me.A group of whaley boys was gathering about ten yards external from them, pointing at Nate and snickering.Theyre coming dump to check out the new tote upr. Dont be surprised if you shake up rub make out up against in the streets. Theyre retributive saying hi.Streets?We birdcall them streets. Theyre classification of streets.Now, out of the dim yellow light of the whale ships, Nate realized that there was a wide var. in the whaley boys coloring. Some were actually mottled blue, like the skin of a blue whale, man others were black like a pilot whale, or light gray like a minke whale. Some even had the black-on-white coloring of killers and Pacific white-sided dolphins, while a few here and there were exacting white like a beluga. The body shapes of all were very like, differing only in size, with the killer whaley boys, who were taller by a foot and heavier by perhaps a hundred pounds, having jaws twice the width of the others. He also detect in the brighter light that he was the only human who had a tan. The people, even Cal and the crew, looked healthy it fair appeared that none of them had ever seen the sun. Like the British.Nuez came over and helped Cal, and then Nate, to his feet.How re the shoes? she asked Nate.Theyre strange after not wearing any for so long.Youll be wobbly for a few hours, too. Youll feel the motion when you deliver still for a day or so. No different from having been at sea in normal ship. Ill produce you to your new quarters, show you around a little, conk you settled in. The Colonel will probably send for you originally too long. People will help you out, humans and whaley boys. Theyll all see youre new.How many, Cielle?Humans? Al roughly five thousand live here. Whaley boys, maybe half that many.Where is here? Where are we?I told him about Gooville, said Cal.Nuez looked up at Nate and then pulled her sunglasses downcast on her nose so he could see her eyes. Dont freak out on me, huh?Nate move his head. What did she think, that whatever she was going to tell him was going to be weirder, grander, or wampumier than what hed seen already?The roof in a higher place this ceiling which is thick rock, although were not exactly reliab le how thick anyway, its around six hundred feet below the surface of the Pacific Ocean. Were about two hundred miles off the coast of Chile, under the continental shelf. In fact, we came in by means of a lessening in the continental rise, a cliff face.Were six hundred feet underwater right instanter. The pressure?We came in through a very long tunnel, a series of pressure locks that pass the ships along until were at surface pressure. I would maintain shown you as we came through, but I didnt insufficiency to wake you.Yeah, thanks for that.Lets get you to your new house. Weve got a long walk ahead of us. She headed away(predicate) from the water, motioning for him to follow.Nate nearly stumbled trying to look back at the whale ships lining the harbor. Tim caught him by the arm. Its a lot to exhaust in. People really give way freaked out. You dependable have to accede that the Goo wont let anything bad happen to you. The rest is simply a series of surprises. Like life. Nate looked into the younger mans dark eyes to see if there was any irony showing there, but he was as open and sincere as a bowl of milk. The Goo will take care of me?Thats right, said Tim, helping him along toward the grotto wall, toward the actual colonisation of Gooville, with its organically shaped doorways and windows, its knobs and nodules, its lobster-shell pathways, its whaley-boy pods establishing together or playing in the water, where was ho employ an entire village of what Nate assumed were all happy human wackjobs. subsequently two long time of looking for meaning in hash label on waveforms and ones and ohs on legal pads that were hastily typed into the machine, Kona install a surf hop oner/hacker on the North Shore named Lolo who agreed to write it all into a Linux routine in exchange for Konas old long board and a half ounce of the dankest nugs1.Wont he just take cash in? asked trunk.Hes an artist, explained Kona. Everyone has cash.I dont contend what Im goin g to put that under for the accountant.Nugs, dank? the Great Compromiser looked forlornly at the legal-pad pages piling up on the desk next to where Margaret Painborne was typing. He handed a roll of bills over to Kona. Go. Buy nugs. total him back. Bring back my change.Im throwing in my board for the cause, said Kona. I could use some time in the mystic myself.Do you want me to tell auntie Clair that you tried to extort me? cadaver had taken to using Clair as a sort of sword of Damocles/assistant principal/evil dominatrix threat over Kona, and it seemed to work swimmingly.Must blaze, brah. Cool runnings.Suddenly something sparked in Clays head, a dj vu trigger snapping electric with connections. Wait, Kona.The surfer paused in the doorway, dark.The first day you came here, the day that Nate sent you to the lab to get the film did you actually do it?Kona shook his head, Nah, boss, the Snowy Biscuit see me going. She say nurse the money and she go to the lab. When I come back with my ganja, she give me the pictures to give to Nate.I was sort of afraid of that, Clay said. Go, blaze, be gone. Get what we subscribe.So three days later they all stood watching as Lolo hit the return list and the subsonic waveform from a blue-whale call began scrolling across the bottom of the screen, while above it letters were transcribed from the data. Lolo was a year older than Kona, a Japanese-American burned nut brown by the sun with ducky-yellow minidreads and a arras of Maori tattoos across his back and shoulders.Lolo spun in the chair to face them. I sundry(a) down a fifty-minute trance track with sixty percussion loops that was way harder than this. Lolos prior forays into sound processing had been as a computer DJ at a dance club in Honolulu.Its not saying anything, said Libby Quinn. Its just random, Clay.Well, thats the way its gone so far, right? notwithstanding theres been nothing since that first day.We knew that might happen, that there couldnt be message s on all of them. We just have to find the right ones.Libbys eyes were pleading. Clay, its a brief season. We have to get out in the field. Now that you have this program, you dont need the manpower. Margaret and I will bring back more tapes we have them coming in from people we trust but we cant afford to blow off the season.And we need to go public with the torpedo range, Margaret added, less sympathetic than Libby had been.Clay nodded and looked at his bare feet against the hardwood floor. He took a muddy breath, and when he looked up, he smiled. Youre right. But dont just blow a whistle and hope psyche will notice. Cliff Hyland told me that the diving data was the only thing they were worry about. Youre going to need proof that kyphosiss dive close to the bottom of the channel, or the navy will claim that youre just being whale buggers and theres no danger to the animals. Even with the range.Youre sanction if we go public, then? asked Libby.People are going to know a bout the torpedo range soon enough. I dont think thats dangerous for you. Just dont say anything about the rest of this, okay?The two women looked at each other, then nodded. We have to go, Libby said. Well call you, Clay. Were not running out on you.I know, Clay said.after they left, Clay turned to the two surfers. Thirty years working with the best scientists and different in the world, and this was what it came down to two stoner kids. If you hombres need to go do things, I understand.Outta here, said Lolo, on his feet and bounding toward the door.Clay looked at the screen where Lolo had been sitting. Scrolling across it WILL ARRIVE GV APPRX 1300 MONDAY__HAVE__SIZE 11 SNEAKERS WAITING FOR QUINN__END MSS__AAAA__BAXYXABUDAB.Get him back, Clay said to Kona. We need to know which tape this was.Libby gave them all to him.I know that. I need to know where she got it. Where and when it was recorded. Call Libbys cell phone. See if you can get hold of her. Clay was trying to make the sc reen print in the first place the message scrolled away. How the hell does this thing work?How you know Im not go forth?You woke up this morning, Kona. Did you have a reason to get out of bed other than waves or pot?Yah, mon, need to find Nate.Howd that feel?Im handicraft Libby, boss.Loyalty is important, son. Ill go catch Lolo. Confirm which tape it was.Shut up, boss. Im trying to dial.Behind them the cryptic message scrolled out of the printer.CHAPTER TWENTY-EIGHTSingle-Celled toolStockholm syndrome or not, Nate was starting to get tired of the whole hippie-commune, everything-is-wonderful-and-the-Goo-will-provide attitude. Nuez had come by for three days running to take him out on the town, and every person he met was just a little too damn satisfied with the whole idea that they were living inside a giant organism six hundred feet under the ocean. Like this was a normal thing. Like he just wasnt getting with the program because he continued to ask questions. At least the wha ley boys would blow wet raspberries at him and snicker as he walked by. At least they had some hotshot of the absurdity of all this, despite the fact that they shouldnt even have existed in the first place, which did seem to be a extended point of defense force on their part. Theyd installed him in what he guessed was a premier apartment, or what youd call an apartment, on the second floor, looking out over the grotto. The windows were oval, and the glass in them, although perfectly clear, was flexible. It was like looking out on the world through a condom, and that was just the beginning of the things that creeped him out about this place. He had a kitchen sink, a bathroom sink, and a shower all of which had big honking sphincters in the bottom of them and the seal on the door around his refrigerator, if thats what you called it, appeared to be do out of slugs, or at least something that left an iridescent guck on you if you brushed up against it. There was also a fine- tooth(prenominal) garbage disposal in the kitchen, which he wouldnt even go near. The defeat of it was that the apartment didnt make any attempt to conceal that it was alive. His first day there, when the human crew from the whale ship had come by for a drink a housewarming there had been a scaly knob on the wall by the front door that when pushed would cause the door to open. After the crew left and Nate returned from his shower, the doorknob had healed over. There was a scar there in the shell, but that was all. Nate was locked in.There was a tom-tom thrumming of stones bang his front picture window. Nate went to the window, looked out on the vast grotto and harbor, then down on the source of his torment. A pod of whaley-boy kids was winging stones at his window. Thump, thump-a, thump. The stones bounced off, expiration no mark. When Nate appeared at the window, the thumping became more furious, as the whaley kids picked up the pace and aimed right at him, as if a well-pl aced shot might record him in a dunking tank.Theres a reason cetaceans dont have hands in the real world Nate screamed at them. You are that reason You little freaksThump, thump-a, thump, thump, clack. on occasion a missed throw hit the shell-like frame of the window, sounding like a marble hitting tile.I sound like experient Man Spangler yelling at my brother and me for raiding his apple trees, Nate thought. When did I turn into that true cat? I dont want to be that guy.There was a soft knock on the shell of his front door. As he turned, the door flipped open like shutters, two pieces of shell retracting on muscles hidden in the wall. Nate tangle like a surprised box turtle. Cielle Nuez stood in the doorway with canvas shopping bags folded under her arm. She was a pleasant woman, attractive, competent, and non-threatening Nate was sure thats why shed been chosen to be his guide.You ready to do some shopping, Nate? I called to tell you I was coming, but you didnt answer.The apa rtment had a speaking apparatus, a sort of ornate tube thing that whistled and buzzed green metallic hang wings when there was a call. Nate was afraid of it.Cielle, can we drop any pretense that we are just buddies out for the day? You lock me in here when you leave.For your own safety.Somehow that always seems to be the argument the piece of ass uses.You want to go get some food and clothes or not? Nate shrugged and followed her out the door. They walked along the perimeter of the grotto, which seemed a cross amid an old English village and an Art Nouveau hobbit housing project irregularly shaped doors and windows looking into shops that displayed baked goods and other fain foods. Evidently the Goo wasnt big on having fire around for home cooking. All the cooked foods were prepared somewhere else in the complex. There was a warming cabinet in Nates apartment that looked like a breadbox make out of a giant armadillo shell. It worked great. You rolled the top open, put the food in, then promptly lost your appetite.Lets get you something to wear today, Cielle said. Those khakis are on loan. Only the whale-ship crews are enounced to wear them.As they walked, a half dozen whaley kids followed them, chirping and giggling all the way.So Id get in trouble if I started kicking whaley kids down the street?Of course, Cielle laughed. We have laws here, just like anywhere else.Evidently not ones that forbid kidnapping and unjustified imprisonment.Nuez stopped and grabbed his arm. Look, what are you complaining about? This is a good place to be. Youre not being mistreated. Everyones been kind to you. Whats the puzzle?Whats the problem? The problem is that all you people were yanked out of your lives, taken away from your families and friends, taken from everything that you knew, and you all act like it doesnt bother you in the least. Well, it bothers me, Cielle. It get it on bothers me a lot. And I dont understand this whole colony, or city, or whatever this thing is. How does it even exist without anyone knowing about it? In all these years, why has no one gotten out and spoiled the secret of this place?I told you, we were all going to drown Bullshit. I dont buy that for a second. That gratitude toward your rescuer only lasts for a short while. Ive seen it. It doesnt take over your life. Everyone Ive met is blissed out. You people worship the Goo, dont you?Nate, you dont want to be locked in, you wont be locked in. You can have the run of Gooville go anywhere you want. Theres hundreds of miles of passages. Some of them even I havent seen. Go. Leave the grotto and go down any one of those passages. But you know what? Youll be back looking for your apartment tonight. You are not a prisoner, youre just living in a different place and a different way.You didnt answer my question.The Goo is the source, Nate. Youll see. The Colonel Fuck the Colonel. The Colonel is a fucking myth.Should we get some burnt umber? You seem grumpy.Damn it, Cie lle, my caffeine headache is not relevant. very it was, sort of. He hadnt had any coffee today. Besides, how do I know its coffee were drinking? Its probably some mutant sea otter/coffee bean hybrid beverage.Is that what you want?No, thats not what I want. What I want is a doorknob. And not an organic nodule thing I want a dead doorknob. One that always has been dead, too. Not something that you used to be friends with.Cielle Nuez had backed away from him several feet, and the whaley kids whod been following them had quieted down and gone into a defensive pod formation, the big kids on the outside. People who were out walking, and who ordinarily made a point of nodding and smiling as they passed, took a wide detour around Nate. There was an inordinate amount of go among the milling whaley boys.That going to do it for you? Nuez asked. A doorknob. I get you a doorknob, youre a happy man?Why should he be discomfit? Because hed scared the kids? Because hed made his captors uncomf ortable? Nevertheless, he was embarrassed.I could use some earplugs, too, if you have them. For sleeping. For ten hours out of twenty-four, the grotto went dark. Cielle explained that this was for the comfort of the humans, to help them keep some semblance of their normal circadian rhythms. People needed day and night without the change many people couldnt sleep. The problem was, the whaley boys didnt sleep. They rested, but they didnt sleep. So when the grotto went dark, they went on about their business. In the dark, however, they were all constantly emitting sonar clicks. At night the grotto sounded like it was being marched upon by an armament of tap dancers. Consequently, so did Nates apartment.Nuez nodded. We can probably do that. You want to go get a steaming hot cup of sea otter now?What?Im just kidding. Lighten up, Nate.I want to go home. Hed said it in front he even realized it.Thats not going to happen. But Ill send word. I think its time you met with the Colonel.Th ey played out the day going to shops. Nate found some cotton slacks that fitted him, some socks and underwear, and a pile of T-shirts from one tiny shop. There was no currency exchanged. Nuez would just nod to the shopkeeper, and Nate would take what he needed. There was little variety in any of the shops, and most of what they carried was goods from the real world clothes, fabric, books, razor blades, shoes, and small electronics. But a few shops carried items that appeared to have been grown or made right there in Gooville toothbrushes, soaps, lotions. All the packaging seemed to come out of the seventeenth century the shopkeepers captive parcels in a ubiquitous oilcloth that Nate thought smelled vaguely of seaweed and indeed had the alike olive color as giant kelp. Patrons brought their own bump arounds to carry oils, pickles, and other soft goods. Nate had seen everything from a modern mayonnaise jar to hand-thrown crockery that had to have been made a hundred years ago.Ho w long, Cielle? he asked as he watched a shopkeeper count sugared dates into a hand-blown glass jar and seal it with wax. How long have people been down here?She followed his respect to the jar. We get a lot of the surface goods from shipwrecks, so dont be impress if you see antiques the sea is a good preserver. We may have salvaged it only a week ago. A friend of mine keeps potatoes in a Grecian wine amphora thats two thousand years old.Yeah, and Im using the holy Grail to catch my spare change. How long?You are so unlike today. I dont know how long, Nate. A long time.He had dozens, hundreds more questions, like where the hell did they get potatoes when they didnt have sunlight to grow anything? They werent bringing potatoes up from a shipwreck. But Cielle was letting him get only so far before claiming ignorance.They had lunch at a four-stool lunch counter where the proprietor was a striking Irishwoman with stunning green eyes and a ample spill of red hair and who, like every one, it seemed, knew Cielle and knew who Nate was.Got you a Walkman then, Dr. Quinn? Whaley boys will need you to drink with that sonar at night.Were going to get him some earplugs today, Brennan, Cielle said.Music, thats the way to wash the whaley-boy whistles, the woman said. Then she was off to her kitchen. The walls of the cafe were decorated with a collection of antique beer trays, glued in place, as Nate had learned, with an adhesive that was similar to what barnacles secreted to fasten themselves to ships. Nailing things up was frowned upon, as the walls would bleed for a while if injured.Nate took a bite of his sandwich, meatballs and mozzarella on good crusty French bread.How? he asked Cielle, blowing crumbs on the counter. How does any of this push up get made if theres no flame?Cielle shrugged. No idea. A bakery, Id guess. They make all the prepared food outside the grotto. Ive never been there.You dont know how? How can that be?Cielle Nuez put down her own sandwich and leaned on one elbow, smiling at Nate. She had remarkably kind eyes, and Nate had to inspire himself that she had been ordered to be his friend. Interesting, he thought, that theyd choose a woman. Was she bait?You ever read A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court, Nate?Of course, everybody does.And that guy goes back to Camelot from the late nineteenth century and dazzles everyone with his scientific knowledge, mainly because he can make gunpowder, right?Yes, so?Youre a scientist, so you might do better than most, but take your average citizen, a guy who works at a discount store, say. Drop him in the duodecimal century, you know what hell achieve?Make your point?Death by bacterial infection, more than likely. And the last words on his lips will probably be, Theres such a thing as an antibiotic, really. My point is, I dont know how this stuff is made because I havent needed to know. Nobody knows how to make the things they use. I suppose I could find out and get back to you, b ut I promise you Im not holding out on you just to be mysterious. We do a lot of salvage on the whale ships, and we have a trade network into the real world that gets us a lot of our goods. When a freighter leaves pallets of goods for the people on remote islands in the Pacific, all they know is that theyve been paid and theyve delivered to shore. They dont stay to see who takes the goods away. The old-timers say that it used to be that the Goo provided everything. Nothing came in from the outside that wasnt on their backs when they got here.Nate took a bite of his sandwich and nodded as if considering what shed just said. Since hed arrived in Gooville, he had spent every waking moment thinking about two things one, how this whole place could possibly function and two, how to get out of it. The Goo had to get energy from somewhere. The energy to light the huge grotto alone would require tens of millions of calories. If it got energy from outside, maybe you could use that same pathwa y to get out.So do you guys feed it? The Goo?No.Well, then-Dont know, Nate. I just dont know. How does dry-cleaning work?Well, I assume that they use solvents, that, uh Look, biologists dont have a lot of stuff that needs to be dry-cleaned. Im sure its not that complicated a process.Yeah, well, right back at you on all of your questions about the Goo.Cielle stood and gathered up her parcels. Lets go, Nate. Im taking you back to your apartment. Then Im going right to the whaley-boy den and find out if they can get the Colonel to see you. Today.Nate still had a pair off bites of his sandwich left. Hey, Ive still got a couple of bites of my sandwich left, he said. very? Well, did you ask yourself where in Gooville we got meatballs? What sort of meat might be in them?Nate dropped his sandwich.Bit of the whining wussy boy, arent we? said Brennan as she came out of the kitchen to take away their plates.Nate was culture a cheesy lawyer novel that hed found in the small library in his apartment when the whaley boys came for him. There were three of them, two intumescent males with killer-whale coloring and a smaller female blue. Only when the blue squeaked Hi Nate in a mashed-elf voice did he recognize it as Emily 7.Wow, hi, Emily. Is just Emily okay, or should I always say the Seven? Nate always felt awkward with someone afterward, even if there wasnt anything for the ward to be after.She cover her arms over her chest and bugged out her left eye at him.Okay, Nate said, moving on, I guess well be going, then. Did you see my new doorknob? Brand-new. Stainless steel. I realize it doesnt go with everything else, but, you know, it feels a little like freedom. Right, Nate. Its a doorknob, he thought.They led him around the perimeter of the grotto, beyond the village, and into one of the huge passageways that led away from the grotto.They walked for half an hour, tracing a labyrinth of passageways that got narrower and narrower the farther off they went, the bright r ed lobster-shell surface melt into something that looked like mother-of-pearl the deeper in they went. It glowed faintly, just enough so they could see where they were going.Finally the passageway started to broaden again and open into a large room that looked like some sort of oval amphitheater, all of it pearlescent and providing its own light. Benches lined the walls around the room, all in view of a wide ramp that led to a round portal the size of a garage door, closed now with an iris of black shell.Ooooh, the great and powerful Oz will see you now, Nate said.The whaley boys, who normally found practically anything funny, just looked away. One of the black-and-whites started whistling a soft tune from his blowhole. In the entrance hall of the Mountain King or a Streisand tune something creepy, Nate thought.Emily 7 backhand the whistler in the chest, and he stopped abruptly. Then she put her hand on Nates shoulder and gestured for him to go up the steps to the round porta l.Okay, I guess this is it. Nate started backing up the ramp as the whaley boys started backing away from him. You guys better not leave me, because Ill never find my way back.Emily 7 grinned, that lovely hack-a-salmon-in-half smile of hers, and waved him on.Thanks, Em. You look good, you know. Did I mention? Shiny. He hoped shiny was good.The iris subject behind him, and the whaley boys fell to their knees and touched their lower jaws to the floor. Nate turned to see that the pearlescent ramp led into a vibrant red chamber that was pulsing with light and glistening with moisture as the walls appeared to breathe. Now, this looked like a living thing the inside of a living thing. in truth much more what hed expected to see when the whale had eaten him. He made his way forward. A few steps in, the ramp melded into the reddish flesh, which Nate could now see was shot through with blood vessels and what might be nerves. He couldnt get the size of the space he was in. It just seemed to expand to cause him and contract behind him, as if a bubble were moving along with him inside it. When the iris disappeared into the pink Goo, Nate felt a wave of terror go through him. He took a deep breath damp, rich air and strangely enough he remembered what Poynter and Poe had told him back on the humpback ship Its easier if you just accept that youre already dead. He took another deep breath and ventured forward a few more feet, then stopped.I feel like a friggin sperm in here he yelled. What the hell, he was dead anyway. Im supposed to have a meeting with the Colonel.On cue, the Goo began to open in front of him, like the view of a flower opening from the inside. A brighter light illuminated the newly opened chamber, now just large enough to house Nate, another person, and about ten feet of conversational distance. Reclining in a great pink push-down list of goo, dressed in tropical safari wear and a San Francisco Giants baseball hat, was the Colonel.Nathan Quin n, good to see you. Its been a long time, he said.

PHP Remote File Include (RFI) Essay

1. What is a PHP Remote rouse accept (RFI) contend, and why are these prevalent in todays Internet world? a. A Remote File include allows an aggressor to include a remote buck. This vulnerability is most often arrange on websites and is usually implemented through a script on the web server. 2. What country is the top host of SQL Injection and SQL Slammer contagious disease? Why cant the US Government do anything to forbid these injection attacks and infections? a. Peru.3. What does it mean to have a indemnity of Nondisclosure in an make-up? a. It means that certain information cant be make public under the companys policy. 4. What Trends were tracked when it came to Malicious code in 2009 by the Symantec account researched during this lab? a. Swifi, Interrupdate, Fostrem, Kuaiput, Mibling, Pilleuz, Ergrun, Bredolab, Changeup, Induc 5. What is Phishing? Describe what a true Phishing attack attempts to accomplish. a. Stealing online account information by posing as a leg itimate company. 6. What is the vigour Day Initiative? Do you destine this is valuable, and would you participate if you were the managing partner in a large firm? a. A program to reward security researchers for disclosing vulnerabilities. Yes. 7. What is a Server Side Include (SSI)? What are the ramifications if an SSI influence is successful? a. A Server Side Include is a ferment of adding content to an existing HTML page. 8. According to the Tipping stop Report researched in this lab how do SMB attacks measure up to HTTP attacks in the youthful past?a. There was almost a 60% shift from a SMB type attack, towards an HTTP-based attack. In addition, nearly 100% of the observed attacks are automated, botnet, or worm-based attacks. 9. According to the TippingPoint Report, what are almost of the PHP RFI payload effects DVLabs has detected this family? a. PHP Remote shoot-include attacks saw a steady overall downward trend, draw out for a massive spike in mid-year of 2010. 10. Explain the steps it takes to range a Malicious PDF Attack as described in the Tipping Point Report? a. tint 1 The attacker begins by using aright free attack software to create a malicious PDF accommodate that contains exploitation code. If this file away is opened on a dupe estimator with unpatched PDF reader software, this code will execute verifys of the attackers choosing. b. Step 2 The attacker loads the malicious PDF file 2 a third-party website. The attacker then loads the malicious PDF file on a publicly accessiblewebsite.c. STEP 3 The attacker now sends netmail to high-profile individual in the target organization, including corporate officers. This message contains a hyper sleeper to the attackers malicious PDF file on the external Web server. The e-mail message is finely tuned to each(prenominal) target individual with a pore effort to get the recipient to click on the link some other trusted site. The attacker does not include the malicious PDF file as an e-m ail attachment, because such attacks are more(prenominal) likely to be blocked by e-mail filters, anti-virus software, and other defenses of the target organization. d. Step4 The dupe in spite of appearance the targeted organization reads the e-mail, pulling down the attackers message with the link to the malicious PDF. The user reads the e-mail and clicks on the link. e. Step5 When the user on the victim machine clicks on the link in the e-mail message, the victims computer automatically gear upes a browser to fetch the malicious PDF file. When the file arrives at the victim computer, the browser automatically invokes the PDF reader program to process and display the malicious PDF file.f. Step6 When the PDF reader software processes the malicious PDF file for display, exploit code from the file executes on the victim machine. This code causes the system to launch an interactive command typeface the attacker can use to go over the victim machine. The exploit code also causes th e machine to make an outward connection back to the attacker through the enterprise firewall. Via this reverse shell connection, the attacker uses an outbound connection to gain inbound control of the victim machine. g. Step 7 With shell access of the victim machine, the attacker seek the system looking for sensitive files stored locally. After stealing some files from this premier(prenominal) conquered system, the attacker looks for evidence of other nearby machines. In particular, the attacker focuses on identifying mounted file shares the user has connected to on a file server. h. Step 8 After identifying a file server, the attacker uses the command shell to access the server with the credentials of the victim user who clicked on the link to the malicious PDF. The attacker then analyzes the file server, looking for more files from the target organization.i. Step9 Finally, with access to the file server, the attacker extracts a significant come in of sensitive documents, possi bly including the organizations trade secrets and business plans, in person Identifiable Information about customers and employees, or other important info the attacker could use or sell. 11. Whatis a Zero Day attack and how does this relate to an organizations vulnerability window? a. A Zero Day attack is an attack that exploits a security vulnerability the equivalent day it becomes public knowledge. This may cause an organization to have a wide vulnerability window since it is still unfamiliar of how to mitigate the thinkable intrusion. 12. How can you mitigate the risk from users and employees from clicking on an imbedded URL link or e-mail attachment from unknown sources? a. Create an Internet Usage polity stating against such actions. Another alternative or addition can be to block e-mail websites.13. When auditing an organization for accordance, what role does IT security policies and an IT security policy framework play in the compliance audit? a. The security apply to protect the company is changed and updated based on the policies that are in place. These policies mustiness include any and all parts of compliance requirements based on the type of organization. 14. When performing a security assessment, why is it a right-hand(a) idea to examine compliance in separate compartments like the heptad domains of a typical IT infrastructure? a. Its easier to manage the findings by each domain to minimize the chance of over-looking a compliance error. 15. True or False. Auditing for compliance and performing security assessments to achieve compliance requires a checklist of compliance requirements. a. True.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Assessment on Communication Skills in the Area of Speaking and Writing Essay

People talk face to face, and they listen to each other. They redeem emails and reports and read the documents that argon sent to them Human worlds are communicating. In two decoding and encoding messages, people spend almost 70% of parley time as accosters. (Jaime Gutierrez-Ang 2009).Communication is two port process by which information is exchanged between or among individuals finished a public system of symbols, science and behavior (Martinez 1) Being a two way process, communication occurs in a orderly and systematic age wherein world beings are able to see and hear what transpires in their environment.As a process, communication is dynamic, adaptive and continuous. Being a survival mechanism, communication servings us develop to be unique persons, relating and cooperating with others. It satisfies our physical, ego, social and practical needs. It is indeed native in life. (Mely M. Padilla 2003) Speaking and indite are skills that have similarities. Both sol icit the use of language symbols to express needs and whole toneings, they are both governed by the rules of semantics and syntax.Both are also expected to achieve communicative purpose- a degree of understanding, common knowledge and shared expectations. In address, we monitor what we feel out by listening to the revised or connected ideas, while in writing, we monitor what we write by reading and rereading. Furthermore, the speaker and the writer should be able to hear how simple or complex and formal the statements should be. al iodine thither are differences in speaking and writing too. Writing differs in saving in several ways.According to Vygotsky ,e.f Hughey 1983, composing a scripted discourse is a separate linguistic enjoymentction differing from oral speech in both structure and mode of functioning. Even its minimal victimization requires a high direct of abstraction. Writing is significantly various from speaking because writing requires a more complex and diffi cult discourse. (Saymo, 2004.)In reflecting upon and surfing out communication skills, then think of communication as ways and means of gathering and relying information, and think of information as what there is to be gathered by any means that is consider the widest work of writing and speaking as you consider your communication skills. In relevance to the Department of College of Education, Communication skills of the students have to be enhanced.The researchers encouraged the department that finished Speech Laboratory to measure the speaking skills of the students as well as the writing skills where in the teachers can identify where the strength of the students and of the their weaknesses are in the components communication skills in the realm of speaking and writing. It is also an instrument to light upon students potential in speech so that it can be highly- true and can be a product of the department in the landing field of speaking and writing.The researchers look for ward for the schedule that can be developed based on the results of the study. It will be a universal program for the teachers to have the better and effective instructional materials. The researchers foresee the unbiased discourse of the teachers towards the students by means of the help of universal program. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMThis study aims to determine the levels of communication skills of BEED Gen.Ed freshmen students of Carlos Hilado Memorial State College for the first semester academic year 2013-2014 as Basis for Program Development. Specific anyy, it will aim to answer the following specific questions. 1. What are the levels of Communication Skills of BEED Gen. Ed freshmen students in the line of business of speaking and writing when they are grouped harmonize to a) School Graduatedb) Mental expertnessc) Parents educational Attainment2. What are the difficulties in the components of Communication Skills of BEED Gen. Ed freshmen students when they are grouped acc ording to a) School Graduatedb) Mental Abilityc) Parents Educational Attainment3. Is there a significant difference on the level of communication skills in the area of speaking and writing when they are compared according to a) School Graduatedb) Mental Abilityc) Parents Educational Attainment4. ground on the results, what program should be developed?HYPOTHESISThere is no significant difference on the level of communication skills of BEED Gen. Ed. freshmen students in the area of speaking and writing when they compared according to where school they graduated, mental ability and what their parents educational attainment. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKCommunication is the way to learn the person. If he is to be deprived of the chance to communicate with others, he should have sense of identity. It is done communication that one gets the chance for affirmation of self-concept and sharing of views about a variety of things among others. People relate socially with each other through communica tion.Personal communication is essential for a persons well-being. adequateness or absence of communication has a bearing on ones state of physical health. For one, stress is heightened or dissipated depending on communication or lack of it and the nature of its content. So as being a two-way process, communication occurs in an orderly and systematic sequence where in human beings are able to see and hear transpires in their environment (William Schutz).These statements emphasize the importance of communication in different area of human needs. Communication is very essential because human being develops their force to speak through interaction with others. Especially the children ages 1-5, they are great imitators. They discover the actions of their parents, brother and sister, playmates and others. They tend to discover the words by their own through observation.According to George T. Wilkins Speech is the most important of all means of communication. In the great government po litics, and in the expression of our own democratic rights, speech is also most important. Good speech is essential to participate in democracy. As to the students, speech can help express their feelings. It can help through participating in classroom discussions, reciting in classroom activities and report assigned tasks. Effectiveness in speaking is a climb to a ladder of seven steps (Eugine E. White and Claire K. Neudelider).The quote stated that the speaker should first analyze and know the audience that will listen. In federation to the communication skills assessment, the students that have difficulties in speaking will assess by the recommendations and develop program that this study aims to achieve.For further information, communication is the KEY which unlocks all the doors to a successful and fulfilling school life experience, to getting cooperation with your students, that allows us to feel understood, for resolving conflicts between teachers and students, to let studen ts know what your needs are and how shell to meet those needs, to fewer conflicts in the classroom and in the playground, to building authorization and self-esteem, to feeling listened to by your students, mutual respect in the classroom, to less tube and more cooperation, to everyone feeling safe to be themselves and to have more fun in the classroom. (http// .These only prove that communication is in reality very important in life especially in the teaching and learning process. It is the key to open the teacher and student mind and their capabilities to speak and write well. C

Littlefield Executive Summary

Production Planning and Inventory Control CTPT 310 Littlefield Simulation executive Report Arlene Myers 260299905 Rubing Mo 260367907 Brent Devenne 260339080 Miyaoka Scenario, Re Littlefield Technology Simulation granular Inventory Management Executive Summary At the onset of the bouncing, we refractory there were a few key things that had to be addressed to succeed. The first was to avoid contain extincts which had already occurred in the first 50 days. We apace moved to avoid armory outs by raising the format point.We did this without clump calculations at first to ensure we did not suffer anymore stock outs while we did the analyses. Upon further analysis, we determined the average demand to date to throw away been 12. 3 orders per day. We forecast demand to stay relatively stable throughout the game based on the information provided. The standard deviation for the menstruum was 3. 64 and the safety factor we decided to use was 3. 0 (98. 86% certainty). Based on the co nsistent lead era of 4 days, we unavoidable ? 49 kits summing up safety stock of 2 x 3. 64 x 3 ? 2 which gave us our order point of 71 kits. Immediately after determining this, we moved to the EOQ EOQ=2* 3216*1000. 1* 600This equality gave us our final order quantity of 327, although based on dismiss demand fluctuations we had been at 321 prior to that. Our next move was to determine what machines inquire to be leveraged and how many. Our strategy was to get lead times down below . 5 days and offer customers that lead time to maximize revenue. The fight between remaining at $750/order vs. $1250/order could set out been as high as 1. million dollars over the life of the game (218 days) accordingly the cost of new machines was sm whole compared to the benefit and the overall revenue potence made it imperative to get to the lowest lead times possible. Because all stations were at times operating at full, we knew that all would farm a bottleneck if left to operate as is. We could also tally based on the order intake on a inclined day as compared to their operating ratio for the various stations, that a oneness machine added to each may be capable.We immediately decided to purchase machines for all stations believing this may be sufficient to disgorge lead times to our target. Shortly after purchasing these machines, we throwd to cut back 2, and after more monitoring we were able to fairly quickly change to contract 3 without any further machine purchases. We monitored lead times and revenues constantly, further at no time felt that the purchase of additional machines was necessary. We bank that our speed at getting these decisions made, and the changes put in place, was crucial to our eventual(prenominal) success.We did see large drops in cash when inventory was purchased but believed that we had through the correct calculations and that we were best to stay the course. We did exactly that until shortly before the time we were to lose control of the factory. We looked at several different strategies to ensure stock was available throughout the last 50 days of the game and that we got caught with nominal inventory at the end of the game. The original end was to order sufficient inventory and safety stock and carry it through, but upon changing our order point, we quickly realized that we had inadvertently order 350 kits immediately.This forced us to change the strategy slightly, we lowered the order point to almost lead times based on the consistency of the demand and safety stock, and calculated the units we would require, plus enough to ensure that we did not order kits immediately prior to the shutdown. If this plan had worked perfectly, we would have ended up with 51 kits in stock, but that would have required that the demand during the last 50 days be higher(prenominal) than the average. This could have happened based on standard deviation, but as it turns out the daily average demand for the period was exactly 12 .We ended up with 182 kits remaining, obviously more than we had hoped, but we did not get caught with an outstanding order, or a huge number of units. In conclusion we ended the game in first place and therefore would change very small about how we played the game. We would have been able to reduce the inventory on hand at the end of the game, but the fundamental strategy of getting lead times below . 5 days and maximizing revenue, and our willingness to reliance that the calculations made would lead to maximum revenue despite times when we dropped from first, allowed us to win this game.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge Essay

In Ambrose Bierces unforesightful level, An fact at snoot Creek Bridge, he uses his cathode-ray oscilloscope to stock out the plot of the report better than the short demand of An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge. The words in the short story flow so beauti fully, and give such detail as to fully understand the emotions running through and through Peyton Farquhars head as the measure progresses to his hanging. In my opinion, the storys graphic settings and imagery easily stab the introduction rising action/climax, and conclusion as Ambrose Bierce originally valued the story to be told.In the introduction of the short story, Bierce tells of a man, before long to be know as Farquhar, standing above a couplet engaged to be hung. As he is waiting for the lieutenant to ace preparations, he lays eyes upon a piece of drift wood in the swirling stream below the bridge. The story therefore goes into detail about how lento the stream appeared to be moving the drift wood along, H e then let his gaze wander to the swirling water of the stream racing madly beneath his feet. A piece of dancing driftwood caught his attention and his eyes followed the current.How late it appeared to move What a sluggish stream (Literature 71). However, in the short film it only(prenominal) represents the image of the piece of wood. This driftwood symbolizes the situation he is currently in that he is in a chaotic predicament but is let off able to slowly drift through the problem. Therefore the story helps the ref fully grasp the introduction of the story better than the short film. During the nitty-gritty of the story, before Farquhars last moments he thinks about his wife and children only to be interrupted by the sound of his pocket watch.As if judgment of conviction were slowing down in his last seconds, the interval between separately tick is symbolic to how little time he has left. Striking through the thought of his dear ones was the sound which he could neither i gnore nor understand, a sharp, distinct, metallic percussion like the stroke of a blacksmiths form upon the anvil.. the delays became maddening (Literature 72). In the short film of An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge, time speeds up and his pocket watch was taken from him by one of the officers, clearly not as in dept to relate why Bierce wrote the pocket watch into the story.Also during the rising action of the written story, it is told in great dilate of how he plunges into the water, and begins to swim through the stream. When he removes the snare from his neck, he sees himself performing but doesnt follow through. He commands himself to ramble the cord okay once he feels a sudden suffering throughout his body, but his hands disobey him. This gives the reader inside details of the characters midland state, which is not expressed in the short film.Lastly, before it is known that Farquhar has been hung and this was his mind flashing through his last moments of life, the sold iers begin firing guns date he swims to safety downstream. At one point the written story tells of how he is spinning and whirled around in the water which brings us back to the symbolism of the driftwood in the introduction. He spins round and round like the driftwood, finally caught up and not in control of the predicament he is in. He had been caught in a vortex and was being whirled on with a velocity of distribute.. spinning like a top (Literature 75).The film does not order of battle the final symbolism of the driftwood and rushes through the stream to only have Farquhar pass around to the bank and run through the forest to his wife and children. Therefore, in my opinion, Bierces written version of An Occurrence at Owl Creek, uses the setting to advance the story and plot to the readers. It is more in dept and brings all things to light internal state, physical state, symbolism, and his flashbacks. The introduction, rising action, and conclusion were all better carried ou t with setting in the written version rather the short film.

American Nationalism

Following a perceived victory in the War of 1812, the surge of subject fieldistic affectionateness that swept the nascent U. S. nation revealed its significance as a gas pedal for unified change. The nationalism manifested itself economically, socially and politically, and was evident through the emergence of a uniquely American acculturation. The first major political and economic constitution change was the emergence of Henry Clays American System.The body created an expansive, accessible credit institution, protectionist tariff act, and an invigorated investment in groundwork (Kennedy 256). The motive for the new policy was the desire to lessen American dependence on cheap British imports. In establishing related acts such as the Tariff of 1816, the nationalist Congress acted directly in the interest of protect American infant-industries, rather than acting purely from the consumers pricing interest.Furthermore, the national bank whose charter had expired was reinstated in an effort to bring in more revenue to the federal government (Kennedy 256). In line with the American System, revenues from tariffs would be allotted to the creation of new transportation methods, such as the Erie Canal (Kennedy 257). However, sectionalism was still present, as states opposed federal backup of interstate commerce, especially those of New England and the Hartford Convention.Despite the sectionalism, an American culture did arise, as seen through the literature of Washington Irving and American-written textbooks (Kennedy 256). Furthermore, America was able to defensively assert its intentions in the Western Hemisphere under the Monroe Doctrine. Although the new American identity unified the country, it was partially built on the unfortunate expiration of slavery that would arouse the sectionalist differences between North and South in the years after the Missouri Compromise.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Analyzing Both Sides of the Conflict Theory Essay

Conflict theory was the maiden radical criminological theory proposed by the scholars in the 1960s (Barkan, p. 254). It specially analyzes the role of interlockings in class, gender, and power in the incidences of crimes in a peculiar(prenominal) society. It tells that these conflicts be the reasons why battalion commit crimes. This specific thought opposes the witness of the consensus theory which perceives crime as any behavior that violates criminal law (Barkan, p. 14). To compare, Conflict theory believes that a crime is far more obscure than the first definition, assuming that battalion do non share the uniform values, beliefs, and dispositions.Because of this, the conflict theory twists one of the theories that are applicable for larger contextual conditions. In fact, the theory encompasses a wide range of areas which makes it divided into sub- categories, much(prenominal) as radical criminology, peacemaking criminology, radical feminism, and left realism. (Greek, 2005). These minoritiesthe poor, Blacks, Hispanics, to name a a few(prenominal)are universe given focus and importance through the theory. Marx and Engels qualify that justice is not attainable and is unfairly being administered to the minorities.Through the conflict theory, an explanation on why minorities get involved with crimes is provided. The theory explains that laws against crimes are do not for the interest of everyone but barely for themselves. Laws are make to serve the interest of the sizeable who knows that their illegal malpractices can only become legal if the laws will be made based on their needs. This made conflict theory sounds more realistic with consensus theory. It has able to portray the paradox with power struggles as a source of crime motives that other theories snub or missed to see.However, proponents of the conflict theory also got blinded and missed to see some of the criticisms regarding the conflict. First of all, it is said that the conflict theory is besides generalized and assuming with its discussion on the implementation of laws in societies. Laws affiliated to the prevention of street crimes such as robbery and murder do not necessarily serve the purpose of the powerful and neglects the less powerful minorities.In fact, such kinds of laws are directed to serve the security of everyone, and not just a little percentage of the people. The theory seems to forget that although people are different in some aspects, they still posses the same characteristics and needs. In this particular situation, all people need security for their lives. The laws protecting peoples lives could not be considered as law protecting only the interests of those who are in power it is also for the benefit of other people.In addition to this criticism, the theory of conflict also shows a weak mooring in terms of labeling disparities. There has been inconsistency in the evidence of such gaps tackling how dominant groups use the law to sup port their personal interests. In this way, the theory, in some ways, lose slightly its credibility.Nevertheless, the greatest strength of the theory is its commodious and radical way of exploring the reason behind crimes in societies. These crimes are deep rooted in the skins of the people who commit them. Although committers of crime are being treated as lowly kind of persons, their condition is being defend by the conflict theory.The theory will simply said that instead of committers, the minorities are victims of a much bigger crime brought about by the powerful groups to them. The theory, instead of prosecuting them, is aiming to reason out their main reason why they have done such crimes. Conflict theory acts like a lawyer who defends a person who has valid reasons behind the crime he committed. The lawyer may lack reliable and consistent evidence to produce the innocence of his client, but still, he believes in the accountability of the person.ReferencesBarkan, S.E. (200 5). Criminology Sociological Understanding. new Jersey Pearson PrenticeHallBartos, J.O. Wehr, P.E. and Paul Wehr. ( 2002). Using Conflict Theory. unfermented York CambridgeUniversity PressGreek, C.E. Criminological Theory. November 2005. Retrieved on 4 June 2008.http//, G.E. (1966). Power and Privilege A Theory of Social Stratification. McGraw-Hill.

Promote communication in health, social care or children s and young peoples settings Essay

051.1.1 chat is an essenial part of our lifes which we start from birth, this is why i believe it is important that there is effective communication in a work setting with small fryren and young people. We eliminate to exchange thoughts, express feelings and to unwrap new things. How we transfer this information can be by speech, crying, victimisation our body language or/and expressions, our main goal is to be understood.We communicate to a variety of people in our work setting, not moreover the children we c are for but we speak with their parents and family members on a regular solid ground to disguss their childs individual needs as well as update them on their childs progress. This is where we can share ideas and gather information on a child such as their mannerisum and types of reasurrance techniques they use to help them feel comfortable in our setting. Most importantly we communicate to others to skeletal frame births and at our setting we receive to maintain them. 051.1.2Read moreEssay About Promote CommunicationCommunication and relationships go hand in hand. To create a relationship we must communicate and with communication we are creating relationships. We all need reasurrance and support, children and adults, we do this by listening about others concerns or worrys they may have and playacting on them, by acting on them we are gaining trust. Having a full relationship with a childs parents and other family members makes the transition from them to us easier.It is vital that we build relationships with the children and young people that we work with to ensure comfort and to feel vouch enough to be without their parents. We aim to work in partnership with adults that are involved in the childrens lives. Communication is highly important between colleagues for us to work well together and to ensure that we have a childs scoop intrest at heart we exchange information on a their routines, feelings and their interests.To be an efficitive te am we must support each other and remain professional. A strong relationship with work colleagues rubs off on the children creating a adroit enviroment.

Friday, February 22, 2019

Fast Food Nation Essay

Fast Food Nation, by Eric Schlosser, is a stark and unrelenting look into the turbulent aliment industry that has planted itself in non alone American subtlety, but in culture around the world. There is almost no place on primer that the golden arches has non entered. Aside from Antarctica, there is a McDonalds on all continent, and the number of countries that sport fast food restaurants is growing on a daily basis. Schlosser describes in detail what happens behind the scenes, before the burger and fry come wrapped in environmentally safe paper and are consumed by millions of quite a little daily.There are several stories that stick erupt in my mind. First is the one about a gaper in Colorado. He had resisted the idea of squeezing as many cows in an wrap area as possible. Instead, he rotates where the cattle eat, what kinds of grasses they eat, and how often they eat it. His ranch was what cattle raising should be. This is in contrast to how a majority of cattle ar e raised today. They stand in paddocks their whole life where they but arrive at the ability to move, and they are fed things that cows arent intentional to eat ?corn, wheat, chicken parts, and even the leftovers of already slaughtered cattle. because they are tend up a gang right smart, into a building where they are first shocked, whence hung up by their hooves and have their necks slit, one after another. It harkens back to The jungle by Upton Sinclair. After one hundred years, the conditions at the meat packing material plants have not improved much. It is still the most dangerous hypothesise in America. Almost everyone who works there are injured at one point, be it from mechanical smashers or knives that had come too stuffy to their arm.Hundreds of thousands of cattle are slaughtered every day, and that is to keep up with the demand from places give care McDonalds, Burger tycoon, and Wendys. It saddened me to read later that the Colorado rancher committed suicide be fare he could no longer compete with the large cattle-growers and he was going to lose his livelihood. another(prenominal) thing that stood out was they way these fast food places treat their workers. Their indemnity of automation has created a whole group of people that do not have to think to do their put-on.These people ? usually teenagers ? are pay token(prenominal) wage to push buttons and do all of the jobs that used to be mounte by hand. It gains government subsides for training people with no job skills, such as the poor, young, or disabled. The ironic thing is that they have admitted that they dont want to have to train people. They want the job to be as easy and training-free as possible, due to their want for uniformity. Uniformity seems to be the way of things at McDonalds ? uniformity and conformity.If you cannot conform to the mold of a McDonalds worker, they will simply find people who will, and they dont have to train them all over again, because the job only r equires that you have sex how to push a button or respond to a silly or a beep. The last thing that stands out is the amount of befoulment that can occur because of the way these animals are slaughtered. One hamburger from Burger King can contain meat from a thousand different cows. If only one of those cows were sick, hence the person eating it can aspire sick.Then you multiply by how many packages of meat or hamburger was processed that could possibly have that one sick animal in it, you have an epidemic. One sick animal can contaminate ? and cause the recall of ? over 400,000 pounds of meat. Thats a lot of meat to have to bring back, and there are countless people who may have already eaten it and gotten sick, or, like the 6-year-old in the book, died. All of these things ? and the whole book in general ? has turned me off of fast food forever I think. Ill never look at McDonalds in the aforementioned(prenominal) way again. The food is full of grease, fat, and bacteria tha t could kill.The food also has hundreds of chemicals in it to make it taste the way it should, rather than the way it does. Seems to me that if their food tasted the way it should in the first place, they wouldnt unavoidableness chemicals to do the job. The employment practices of the fast food chains also leave a lot to be desired. They are a great part of the reason that people need more than one job to survive. Because they have so many minimum wage jobs ? even managers only make about $10 to $15 an hour. That had become a norm in the US, where people dont even make a livable wage.There were a some things I didnt like about either the book or Schlosser himself. First, he was very liberal, and it showed throughout the book. He practically blamed some(prenominal) Bush administrations for every problem laid out in the book, then praised Clinton and his administration to try and stem the tide of the fast food giants. Then there was Schlosser himself. During his speaking engagement at the college, the first thing he said was that he wasnt going to try to tell anyone not to eat fast food or go to McDonaldss or Taco Bell or any other fast food restaurant. He then spent an hour trying to do right that.He said that people spend more time spirit into buying a house than deciding what goes into our bodies. My first reaction was Of year we do A house costs tens of thousands of dollars, and a burger costs 99 cents. I know what he meant by it, saying that the burger will be with us for the rest of our lives and will affect our health in both the short and long run, but its not seen that way. If we have heights cholesterol, we cal take a pill.High blood pressure? Theres a pill for that, too. There are even pills to help people lose weight. The mentality is that we can eat what we want, and there will be a way to reverse it. The bottom line is that I enjoyed the book and I did learn from it. Im never eating at one of those places again, and not just because the foo d is terrible. I refuse to aliment their employment and food acquisition practices. Im only relentless that it took me 26 years to get to this stage. Hopefully my children wont behave them either.

Enzyme Inhibition

Enzyme Inhibition galore(postnominal) drugs exert their action by prohibition era of an enzyme action at law in the body. If the activity of an enzyme is vital to the cell or organism, because inhibition whitethorn lead to death of the cell or organism. It is now possible to design new drugs which atomic number 18 enzyme inhibitors once a target enzyme has been identified. Types of Inhibitors A) rechargeable InhibitorsThe effect of the inhibitor is instantaneous, and it can be removed from the enzyme by dialysis so that the enzyme activity is returned to normal. such inhibitors interact with the enzyme by weak non-covalent bonds to form an enzyme inhibitor confused. E + I ? EI B) Irreversible InhibitorsThese inhibitors bind real tightly to the enzyme, sometimes by formation of covalent bonds to form an enzyme inhibitor compound rather than a unloose complex. The effect is therefore progressive with time reaching a upper limit when all of the enzyme has responded. This is no t easily turn by simple strong-arm treatments such as dialysis. E + I EI Reversible Inhibition of EnzymesThere atomic number 18 three causes of reversible enzyme inhibitioncompetitive, non-competitive(to a fault called mixed)and uncompetitive. Competitive- counterspyecules which closely resemble the subst roam in size, shape and charge distribution may also slip into the nimble site. This may result in response i. e. the jiffy molecule is some other substrate for the enzyme, or it may result in inhibition because the progressive site is blocked. The inhibitor has a separate equilibrium with the enzyme. The fertilization of substrate and inhibitor is mutually exclusive. E + S ? ES E + P, E + I ?EI all(prenominal) of these equilibria is characterised by a dissociation constant. The first by Km (the Michaelis constant) and the second by Ki which characterises the binding mingled with enzyme and inhibitor. If sufficient S is present then eventually the inhibition by I provideing be overcome. This is the symptomatic test for this type of inhibition. Both I and S compete for the functional enzyme. The activity of an enzyme is described by the following equation (Michaelis- Menton equation) In the front of acompetitive reversible inhibitor, this equation becomesSo theMichaelis constant(which is a reciprocal measure of resemblance of E and S) is changed by the factor 1 + I/Ki where I is the inhibitor concentration andKi is the dissociation constant for the equilibrium amidst E and I. Most importantly,Vmax is unchanged this is diagnostic for this type of inhibition. Ki is exceed defined as the concentration of inhibitor need to slow the reaction to half(a) the rate it shows in the absence of inhibitor. It is a reciprocal measure of the affinity of E and I. Lineweaver-Burk Plot for Competitive Reversible InhibitionTheintercept on the y axis represents 1/Vmax. The slope is altered by the factor 1 + I/Ki, but theeasiest way to calculate Kiis fr om theratio of the intercepts on the x axis. Without inhibitor the intercept is -1//Km, with inhibitor it is -1/Km(1+I/Ki), so the ratio (bigger over smaller so it is greater than 1) is 1 + I/Ki. Easiest way to calculate Kiis from theratio of the intercepts on the x axis. Equation Other Types of Reversible Inhibition Uncompetitive- This type of reversible inhibition is said to occur when the inhibitor binds with the enzyme-substrate complex rather than the enzyme.Substrate and inhibitor bind underagely. Noncompetitive (Mixed)- This type occurs when the inhibitor binds to both the enzyme and enzyme-substrate complex. Substrate and inhibitor bind independently. Irreversible Inhibition of Enzymes Reversible gist that the timescale of the inhibition is confusable to that of the enzyme action, usually measured over a a couple of(prenominal) minutes. Irreversiblemeans that the enzyme activity is inhibited for times significantly lengthy than the assay times for the enzyme. It does not necessarily mean that the inhibition volition not reverse given sufficient time i. . hours, years or weeks. nearly of the most interesting examples of enzyme inhibitors as drugs be those which fall between the two extremes and argon sometimes defined as Quasi-Irreversible. These acknowledge tight-binding inhibitors, passage accede line of latitudes and slowly dissociating intermediates. near-Binding inhibitorsandTransition State Analoguesform high affinity complexes with the enzyme and may convey Ki values in the order of nano bomber (10-9mol L-1). The value of Ki will be very important in describing the potency of this type of inhibitor.As a rough guide the inhibitor concentration cause 50% inhibition (I50) is used as a measure of Ki. easy Dissociating Intermediatesreact with the enzyme to form covalent intermediates which take time to dissociate from the enzyme. A Classification of Enzyme Inhibitors as Drugs For a compound to survey as a drug in vivo it will ideally have TWO very important properties. These are PotencyTo work in vivo as an enzyme inhibitor the inhibitor will need to be sloshed seemly so that the dose required is in the order of milligrams to grams.SpecificityIf a compound is a nonspecific enzyme inhibitor it is more than likely to be hepato cyanogenic and exhibit serious side effects. It may be a poison. Simple Reversible- A simple reversible inhibitor binds to the enzyme and decreases the enzyme activity instantaneously and reverses within the time of the enzyme action. The inhibitor binds non-covalently (ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, Van Der Waals forces) to the enzyme and the strength of binding is of a similar order to the substrate i. e. Ki will be of similar size to Km. For very good reasons, the Km values for enzymes straggle between about 10-2mol L-1to 10-6mol L-1.Unlikely to be potent enough to work in vivo where competition occurs in a dynamic metabolic situation. For a simple competitive inhibitor the inh ibition will be self-limiting. If an enzyme is not rate limiting, it may be necessary to achieve 90% inhibition ahead any increase in substrate concentration occurs. To do this the inhibitor concentration needs to be approximately 20 times the Ki value. Conformationally certified Competitive Inhibitors- It is possible that a reversible competitive inhibitor which is a conformationally dependent analogue of the substrate will have a much higher(prenominal) affinity for the enzyme han does the substrate and hence can be potent enough to work in vivo at reasonable concentrations. Such compounds may have Ki values in the neighborhood of 1 x 10-7mol L-1 Quasi-Irreversible Tight Binding Inhibitors- This is an extension of the previous class i. e. competitive inhibitors which are conformationally restrict and/or have many non-covalent interactions leading to long abiding complexes. Therefore binding is very tight (Ki in order of 10-9mol L-1to 10-10mol L-1) and these compounds are pot ent enough to act as drugs in vivo.Transition State Analogues- Theoretically, an analogue of a transition state (or reaction intermediate) for the enzyme catalysed reaction will bind much tighter than an analogue of the substrate. The outcome is a potent and potentially specific inhibitor. Theoretically, Ki values can be very low. In practice if Ki values in the region of Nano molar can be achieved, these are potent enough to work in vivo. As we shall see, there has been much work in this area on proteases including HIV protease and there are now a major(ip) class of drugs which has been developed on this principle.Slowly Dissociating Intermediates- Some enzymes form covalent intermediates as part of their mechanism e. g. acetylcholinesterase. It is possible for a compound to act as a pseudo-substrate and be converted into a long lasting intermediate. Such an inhibition is time dependent and in some cases is virtually irreversible. sometimes the intermediate is hydrolysed in minutes or hours but this is still much longer than the normal enzyme mechanism when the intermediate would last only milliseconds. Examples include the anticholinesterases neostigmine and physostigmine (eserine) and penicillin.Irreversible Nonspecific a. Heavy metallic element poisons e. g. cyanide, hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide- Some enzymes and other important proteins such as Haemoglobin and Cytochromes, require metals as cofactors. These metals are often transition metals such as Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and ligands which are electron rich will form co-ordinate covalent bonds with these metals will inactivate these proteins. These bonds are strong and very often these ligands are toxic because of this irreversible inactivation.Cyanide reacts with cytochrome oxidase which is the terminal electron carrier in the electron maneuver chain by ligand formation with the Cu atom at the total of its mechanism. Similarly, carbon monoxide complexes with the Fe atom in the haem cofactor of haemoglobi n. b. Heavy metal ions e. g. mercury, lead etc. These are common irreversible inhibitors because of their ability to complex firmly with particular groups in enzymes. These effects can be reversed by treatment with chelating agents such as EDTA (ethylene di-amino tetra acetic caustic). c. Thiol poisons e. . alkylating agents, Arsenic (III) Many enzymes contain thiol (-SH) groups in amino acid side chains cysteine, which are essential for catalytic activity. Any compound which reacts with these functional groups will poison the enzyme. E. g. Iodoacetamide(alkylating agent) Arsenic- The most toxic form of Arsenic is As (III) as in arsenite AsO2. In this form, Arsenic reacts rapidly withthiol groups, especially with dithiols such as lipoic acid which is an essential cofactor for some important enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase and -ketoglutarate dehyrdrogenase.You should remember these enzymes as part of the link reaction and the citric acid cycle. When these enzymes are blocke d, ventilation system stops. Arsenic derivatives have been prepared as very poisonous struggle gases e. g. Lewisite. antidote calledDimercaprol (British Anti-Lewisite)was designed by incorporating two thiols for the poison to react with. The two thiol groups react with the arsenical war gas forming a constant compound and thus stopping it from blocking the thiol groups in lipoic acid. Dimercaprolis used these days as an antidote to toxic condition with heavy metals such as antimony, arsenic, mercury, bismuth, gold, thallium.It is also used in conjunction with pencillamine in the treatment of lead poisoning (see BNF). Specific Irreversible Inhibitors Affinity Labels (Active site directed irreversible inhibitors)- An analogue of the substrate which binds to the active site of an enzyme, but which contains a chemically excited group, has the potential to form covalent bonds with side chains at or near the active site. These inhibitors are irreversible and have been very efficacio us in elucidating enzyme mechanisms but their reactive nature makes them likely to be toxic when used in vivo.Mechanism-based Inhibitors (suicide reagents) The principle of this sort of inhibition is that a pseudo substrate is accepted by the enzyme which then catalyses the production of its give inhibitor which reacts covalently in the active site. Such inhibitors should be specific as strong as potent. Certain monoamine oxidase inhibitors have this mechanism, also the -lactamase inhibitors (e. g. clavulanate). The pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6) dependent enzymes have been a particular candidate for the development of this kind of inhibitor (e. g. difluoromethyldopa). Enzyme inhibitorsEdrophonium conformationally restricted competitive reversible, wizard inhibitors Tight binding, HIV protease inhibitors Transition state analogues, Neostigmine, Penicillin Slowly dissociating intermediates DFP Irreversible group specific reagent, Clavulanate mechanism-based irreversible i nhibitor. Types of Enzyme Inhibitors Simple Reversible Competitive (also uncompetitive, noncompetitive, mixed) Simple substrate analogues Michaelis-Menten kinetics Ki in region of Km i. e. 10-2 10-6M Restricted Conformation Rigid shape similar to favoured substrate fit Ki less than Km e. g. drophonium as inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase Quasi-Irreversible Tight Binding Ki can be in region of nanomolar E. g. ACE inhibitors Captopril, enalapril etc. Transition State Analogues. Binding constant theoretically below nanomolar Inhibitors of proteinases e. g. pepsin, renin, HIV proteinase Slowly Dissociating Intermediates time dependent kinetics e. g. neostigmine, eserine as anticholinesterases Penicillin Irreversible Heavy metal poisons etc Cyanide, Hydrogen Sulphide, Carbon Monoxide classify reagents e. g. Arsenic (III), Iodoacetamide DFP action on esterases Affinity labels TPCK on Chymotrypsin Mechanism found (suicide inhibitors) e. g. Clavulanate onlactamase Enzyme Inhibito rs as Drugs ENZYME INHIBITOR(S) USES Acetylcholinesterase Edrophonium Neostigmine Eserine Myasthenia Gravis Glaucoma Paralytic Ileus Monoamine Oxidase Tranylcypramine printing Xanthine Oxidase Allopurinol Gout, adjunct to pubic louse chemotherapy Carbonic Anhydrase Acetazolamide Diuresis Dihydrofolate Reductase Methotrexate LeukaemiaTranspeptidase Penicillin Antibacterial Cyclo-oxygenase acetylsalicylic acid etc. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Analgesia Anti-inflammatory Anti-platelet Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Captopril, enalapril, lisinopril etc. Anti-hypertension Thymidylate Synthetase Fluorouracil Cancer chemotherapy Penicillinase (-lactamase) Clavulanate etc Anti-bacterial HIV proteinase Saquinovar etc HIV treatment Reverse transcriptase AZT HIV treatment HMG-CoA Reductase Statins, pravastatin etc. Coronary philia Disease Phospodiesterase V Viagra Erectile dysfunction